July 20, 1969 the Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) met President John F. Kennedy’s challenge to put a man on the moon before the decade was finished.[1] For different reasons, that will be explored in this module, people and organizations claim that the Apollo Moon landing was a hoax staged by NASA. There is not a single theory explaining how, why, or even who faked the landing. Although there are different variations, the leading theory, and the focus of this module, suggest that NASA intentionally mislead the public by manufacturing the footage of Apollo 11. Proponents of this theory claim that the United States and NASA were motivated for political reasons. The moon landing occurred during the Cold War, a period of political and military tension between Western and Eastern powers after World War II. Two major powers, the Soviet Union and the United States were engaged in a competition for supremacy in spaceflight capabilities. Becoming the first country to land a person on the moon and safely return them to Earth would mean a significant win, marking the winner as superior.

This analysis focuses on three major proponents of the theory Bill Kaysing, Ralph René, and Bart Sibrel, their background and contributions to the theory. Additionally, this module will highlight the truth, and fabrications in their arguments, the logical fallacies, and propaganda techniques they use to convince their audience. Finally, the module will end with a series of questions to consider when reading information about conspiracy theories, and then applies those questions to the moon landing conspiracy theory presented here.

Considered by many as “The Father of the Moon Hoax Theory”[2], Bill Kaysing, self-published a book on the subject, We Never Went to the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle. Kaysing was a former U.S. Navy office with a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Redlands. Kaysing began work as a senior technical writer at Rocketdyne, an American rocket engine design and production company, in 1956.[3] He worked there until 1963, in various positions including head of publications before resigning.[4] He sold his house and purchased a small travel trailer, finally settling in Santa Barbara, California to work in marketing and advertisement. There he created a successful dental instrument business for an inventor he met. He then moved to Oakland, California befriending disillusioned Vietnam War Veterans that inspired him to research the then recent Moon landing.[5] Kaysing also felt encouraged to research the Moon landing because of his belief that the U.S. government has historically covered up various events. He claims that for many years they withheld information on social security, and our food products.[6]

Figure 1. Bill Kaysing, considered by many as “The Father of the Moon Hoax Theory”, was an avid proponent of the Moon landing hoax. Many of his followers believe he was the first legitimate source to writ about the theory. (Image source: Bill Kaysing Tribute Web Site, managed by his daughter, Wendy Lynn Kaysing)

In 1976, Kaysing self-published his book claiming that NASA lacked the technical ability to put a man on the moon. He also cited the mysterious death of Thomas Ronald Baron, a quality control inspector for North American Aviation who testified before Congress denying the success of a moon landing. He claims that NASA and the Defense Intelligence Agency worked together to create a lunar landscape in Area 51 because of pressure due to the Cold War. It is important to note that Kaysing became a popular guest on talk radio and television shows around the world, creating an industry of reception, with others following him. His book opened a niche market that allowed him to make money.[7]

Ralph René was an American conspiracy theorist, and small press publisher, who similar to Kaysing, was a vocal proponent of the moon landing conspiracy theory. Although Fox Network television special, Conspiracy Theory: Did We Go to the Moon?[8] Describes him as a scientist and physicist, René has admitted that he does not hold a degree from a university, everything he knows was “self-taught”. René attended Rutgers University for a year before dropping out. He became a carpenter and millwright while continuing his education at home. He taught himself structural and mechanical engineering, sketching and built prototypes for numerous inventions. Due to finances, he was limited to the number of patients he could afford, and was granted two basic patients of those he applied. Later in life, he claims he was contacted by the Rand Corporation for contributions to inventions and ideas related to space for NASA.

Figure 2. A screenshot from the FOX Network television special Conspiracy Theory : Did We Land on the Moon? by John Moffet. The television special analyzed several points of evidence including the lack of blast craters on the moon. The full film can be seen here.

Two years after the first claimed contact, René states that his name was falsely published in a NASA propaganda document, with the intent of using his credibility to gain approval for NASA’s manned Mars mission. His anger at the misuse of his free ideas resulted in scrutiny of NASA Moon landing photos. In 1992, René self-published a book, NASA Mooned America!, presenting evidence that the Apollo Moon landings were faked and produced in a closed studio. In his book, René writes about the errors he discovered in the videos and still pictures from the moon landing, including the implausibility of a flag fluttering in outer space, and the inconsistency of the shadows in the pictures.[9]

Another significant proponent of the Moon landing conspiracy theory is Bart Sibrel, a self-proclaimed filmmaker, writer and investigative journalist who claims that the six Apollo Moon landings between 1969 and 1972 were hoaxes. He is most known for a confrontation with astronaut Buzz Aldrin, the second man after Neil Armstrong to set foot on the moon, after harassing and insulting him. Sibrel wrote, produced, and directed a documentary in 2001, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon, where he states the moon landings were faked, as the spacecraft stayed in low Earth orbit. Sibrel uses widely available footage claiming it to be secret NASA footage sent to him by NASA that shows the astronauts practicing for an upcoming live telecast.[10] Sibrel argues in his documentary that the technology of the United States was behind that of the Soviet Union. His most prominent piece of evidence is the “five-to-one superiority” in man-hours in space the Soviets held over the United States. He highlights the Soviet’s first “ins space” over the United States, and in his documentary states “concerned turned to fear, and then horror as America watched their communist enemy achieve all these first with no hope in sight of every catching up.”[11] He also claims to have collected years of innumerous military, government, industrial and private sources of conspiratorial crimes against humanity such as a pending meteor storm, the Center for Disease Control creating diseases to then control citizens, and the obstruction of real news by the Masons, a fraternal group believed to control politics throughout the world.[12]

Despite the overwhelmingly questionable evidence proponents of the theory present, it is important to note that within the conspiracy theory(s) there are shreds of truth. For example, Bill Kaysing cites the mysterious death of Thomas Ronald Baron shortly after his testimony before Congress. This is true six days after his testimony Baron and his family

Figure 3. Thomas Ronald Baron, a quality control inspector in Apollo 1’s construction. He testified before Congress that that the Apollo program was in a disarray and would not succeed in making it to the moon. (Image source: Project Camelot, an alternative news source)

were killed as their car was struck by a train at a crossing. However, their deaths were ruled an accident by the Florida Highway Patrol.[13] This example is one of many used with the claim that personnel were killed because they might have revealed the program to be a hoax. It is true that a notable number of NASA personnel died during the period of the Apollo mission, including ten NASA astronauts, such as astronaut Virgil “Gus” Grissom. Grissom was also an outspoken critic of the moon landing program most known for comments about a communication failure between his capsule and headquarters moments before his death: “How are we going to get to the moon when we can’t communicate between two buildings?”[14] It is here that conspiracist use a logical fallacy, false cause. The logical fallacy false cause is when an individual promotes an idea with the presumption that a real or perceived relationship between things means that one is the cause of the other. In this case, it is true that a number of NASA personnel that were outspoken against NASA died before the Apollo mission, however their death does not mean that NASA faked the Apollo mission.

Conspiracists use other types of fallacies, or faulty reasoning when trying to promote their theory such as the Texas sharpshooter fallacy, when individuals select the data or information that best supports their idea.  For example, conspiracists may cite how the Soviet Union’s technology was superior to the United States before the moon landing mission. Research demonstrates that this is true, however during the middle and late 1960s the Soviets began to falter as the U.S. made key advances. Before Apollo 7, the Soviet Union made 9 spaceflights, while the U.S. had achieved 16. During this time the United States also achieved 600 more hours in space that the Soviet Union. It was in 1965, when the United States started to gain ground developing a rocket with the capacity to land on the moon.[15] In this case, proponents of this piece of evidence choose to focus on the United States technological deficits before 1965, when it’s technological abilities were behind the Soviet Union’s.

In addition to these logical fallacies, the authors also use propaganda techniques. to persuade their audience to believe in their ideas.  Kaysing and Sibrel use the common technique of relying on their testimonial, or basing the validity of their calaims on their character and qualifications. Both conspiracist base their argument on their understanding of the complex financial and scientific working of NASA, and space technology. Kaysing, while an educated individual received his degree in English and not in engineering, or aerospace technology. In this case he is not a well-qualified individual to assess the technological advances or deficits of NASA. This is similar to Sibrel’s argument, who is a self-proclaimed filmmaker, writer and investigative journalist. His qualifications are self-proclaimed, and are used to warrant his evidence that the United States lacked the technology to achieve a successful Moon landing, as well as the authenticity of the military, government, industrial and private sources he has collected.

Likewise, another technique used by proponents of the Moon landing conspiracy theory is the plain-folk’s technique. This is when the speaker presents him or herself as an everyday man to convince the audience that they, and their ideas are ‘of the people’. For example, Ralph René relies on his testimonial similar to Kaysing and Sibrel. However, René upholds his evidence by claiming on his website that he does not have background knowledge on the technology involved in the Moon landing. More importantly, it is stated in his biography that his knowledge was self-taught and therefore free of bias or corruption. René’s evidence is the common man’s evidence.[16]

Lastly, it is important to think critically when reading about a conspiracy theory.  A way of thinking critically is to begin asking questions about the text such as those listed at Rational Wiki. Below is a condensed list to consider:

  1. How many people were a part of the conspiracy?
  2. How much time and money did it take and where did the money come from?
  3. If there are many thousands of conspirators, how are they organized?
  4. How likely is it to remain covered up if it has gone on for a long time?
  5. If there are thousands of conspirators, and the conspiracy theory has gone on for decades, why have none of them defected?
  6. Who gains from the conspiracy and for what price?

For our purposes, consider the following questions, and responses when reading a conspiracy theory about the moon landing:

Q1: How many people, including NASA and government employees are a part of the conspiracy?

A: Depending on the variation of the conspiracy theory you are confronted with, there is a number of responses to this question. However, given the nature of the work a significant number of people must be involved, whether that be every NASA employee and outside contractor, or only the individuals with the highest clearance. If NASA did falsify the landings how did it, or the United States government manage to keep everyone quiet?

Q2: How much time, and more importantly money did the United States government and/or NASA use to fake the moon landings?

A: This question is directly linked to the previous question, conspirators such as Bart Kaysing claim that NASA used government funding to ensure that everyone who participated in the hoax would stay quiet. It is estimated the NASA spent $25.4 billion on the Apollo mission, and most of this money was used to pay outside contractors and was accounted as stated before Congress in 1973.[17]

Q3: It has been more than four decades since the Apollo moon landing mission. How has the conspiracy managed to remain covered up for such a long time? Why have none of the conspirators defected?

A: The probability that such a large number of individuals would not reveal the truth, especially over such a long period of time is highly unlikely. To be exact, Dr. David Robert Grimes[18] published a mathematical model to determine the lifespan of a conspiracy before someone steps forward, revealing the truth. The formula takes into account the number of people involved and the sheer scale of the hypothetical idea. His findings suggest that if the moon landing was hoaxed, a person involved would have come forth with the within 3, almost 4 years’ time.

In conclusion, this analysis of the Moon landing conspiracy, and its proponents demonstrates the type of research a reader can do when reading texts on any conspiracy, or general information on the internet. It is important when reading any information online to read critically, researching the author, their background, and motive(s). An understanding of the author’s background and motive can help the reader identify persuasion techniques such as logical fallacies and propaganda techniques. When reading about a conspiracy theory it may be difficult to identify the persuasion techniques the author uses but applying the general questions provided at the end of this analysis is a good place to start.

[1]  July 20, 1969: One Giant Leap For Mankind. (2014, July 14).

This article is part of a series published mid-July in 2014, by NASA to commemorate the same dates in 1969 as the Apollo program neared the Moon landing mission.

[2] Windley, J. (n.d.). Clavius Moon Base – debunking the moon hoax. Moon Base Clavius-Bill Kaysing

Clavis.org is a website maintained by Moon Base Clavius, an organization of amateurs and professionals devoted to debunking the conspiracy theories associated with the Moon landing hoax. The webmaster Jay Windley is a trained mechanical engineer who studied mechanical engineering and computer science as Kansas State University, and engineering design and computer science at the University of Utah. He currently works as a systems engineer. He has been acknowledged as an expert in the technical history of Apollo and had consulted with several authors including Arthur C. Clark, and Ed Mitchell, and his comments have appeared in the New York Times Magazine.

[3] Kaysing, W. L. (n.d.). Bill Kaysing Tribute Website-Bibliography

The tribute website to Bill Kaysing is managed by his first daughter Wendy Lynn Kaysing. The site is useful in determining his motivations, and beliefs, however the information does have the potential for bias given the site owners relationship to the Bill Kaysing.

[4] Windley, J. (n.d.). Clavius Moon Base – debunking the moon hoax. Moon Base Clavius-Bill Kaysing

[5] Kaysing, W. L. (n.d.). Bill Kaysing Tribute Website-Bibliography

[6] [6] Watson, D. (n.d.). Nardwuar vs Bill Kaysing.

The following information was taken from Bill Kaysins’s interview with John Ruskin also known as Nardwuar the Human Serviette, on his website nardwuar.com. Ruskin is a Canadian celebrity interviewer and musician. He graduated from the University of British Columbia in 1990.  He is most known for his interviews with music celebrities which appear frequently shown on MuchMusic’s Going Coastal.

[7] Kaysing, W. L. (n.d.). Bill Kaysing Tribute Website-Bibliography

[8] Moffet, J. (Director). (2001). Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon? [Motion picture on television]. USA: FOX Network.

In 2001, Fox Network aired a special television film Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon, where skeptics analyzed the discrepancies and inconsistencies in the evidence that the United States landed on the moon. In the process they interviewed both Bill Kaysing, and Ralph René. In the end they concluded that he NASA Faked the moon landings.

[9] White, J. (n.d.). Ralph Rens’ Website about the NASA/Apollo moon hoax and how they faked their science and physics.

This website is dedicated to archiving the work of Ralph René. It is managed by Jarrah White, an Australian conspiracy theorist known for his long-running YouTube series on the Moon landing hoax. His theories most align with René’s, and many of his YouTube videos reproduced his calculations addressing basic errors he attributes to René’s lack of understanding. White claims to have befriended René before his death, this may be a drawback because White may be bias when writing about René.

[10] Sibrel, B. Bart Sibrel-About.

This website is maintained by Bart Sibrel and only feature his biographic information and links to his other outlets, such as his YouTube channel, and his merchandise. Therefore, it is important to note that this information may be bias as Sibrel may choose to present himself in the best light to build up his credibility.

[11] Sibrel, B. (Director). (2001). A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon [Motion picture on DVD].

[12] Conspiracy Corner | The Sleuth Journal. (n.d.). Conspiracy Corner-Bart’s Bio

The Sleuth Journal is an independent alternative media organization with the intention of exposing what they claim to be the truth in government, politics, world, and local news. Bart is a contributor to the journal’s Conspiracy Corner, where he writes about conspiracies.

[13] Windley, J. (n.d.). Clavius Moon Base – debunking the moon hoax: Thomas Baron.

[14] Project Camelot | In Tribute | 10 NASA astronauts. (n.d.). Retrieved December 07, 2016.

Project Camelot is an alternative news source that focuses on what they believe to be whistleblowing stories about secrets known only to a select few in secret governments. The organization is currently run by Kerry Cassidy, who originally found the project with her then husband Bill Ryan.

[15]  Windley, J. (n.d .). Clavius Moon Base – debunking the moon hoax: Technology, Doing it over.

[16] White, J. (n.d.). Ralph Rens’ Website about the NASA/Apollo moon hoax and how they faked their science and physics.

[17] Clavius Moon Base – debunking the moon hoax: Technology, Doing it over.

[18] Shoemaker, N. (2016, February 02). What’s the Probability That the Moon Landing Was All a Hoax? One Man Has Done the Math.


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